Michigan Republican Rep. Candice Miller announced her decision Thursday. She did not say why she was leaving the House or specify her future plans, other than saying she would be coming home.
Miller has been chairman of the House Administration Committee, which oversees the chamber's day-to-day operations.
She got the post after losing an attempt to head the Homeland Security Committee, where she has headed the subcommittee on border security.
Miller is 60 and was first elected to Congress in 2002. She was re-elected last year with 69 percent of the vote. Republicans seem likely to keep her GOP-leaning district in the 2016 elections.